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区块链技术下物联网和供应链发展的潜能和挑战
文章来源:供应链时代      作者:      时间:2018/6/19 0:00:00

区块链的应用远远超出了加密货币。物联网(IoT)驱动的电子传感器网络是部署下一代区块链技术中尚未开发的平台,该技术有望在包括制造业供应链在内的许多领域提高运营效率。

  区块链的应用远远超出了加密货币。物联网(IoT)驱动的电子传感器网络是部署下一代区块链技术中尚未开发的平台,该技术有望在包括制造业供应链在内的许多领域提高运营效率。

  大规模采用区块链技术的关键挑战是要对部署的成本和风险进行充分的量化,并确保其安全性。区块链最初在金融科技公司中被采用,因为这一领域的产品有较短的合格周期并且不安全。物联网网络可以帮助解决这些障碍,并将区块链技术扩展到其他需要更高可靠性的领域。

  认证工作流程自动化

  在一个区块链驱动的供应链中,实时的物联网传感器通过智能合约(可以由区块链事务触发的自执行脚本)使经过验证的工作流程自动化成为可能。

  智能合约允许物联网传感器节点绕过中间层(即一个中央身份验证服务器)。要验证网络上的活动,传感器节点只需与它们最近的邻居通信,这样就可以快速验证新的活动或事务,而无需连接到云计算中的中心服务器或更远的私有网络。

  因此,物联网区块链网络加速了制造供应链中的数据交换,从而提高了操作效率,降低了系统的脆弱性。

  能源和安全挑战

  运营效率与能源和网络维护成本之间的权衡值得关注。虽然区块链物联网可以减少供应链中的瓶颈数量,但每个传感器持续验证交易和更新分布式区块链分类帐副本所需的能源成本并不是一个常见的指标。频繁的区块链更新也降低了传感器的平均寿命,从而增加了零件更换的频率和成本。

  对物联网区块链网络的安全性也不甚了解。与公共加密货币网络(大部分挖掘能力不受任何单个用户的控制)不同,私有区块链中的挖掘或验证池可能仅限于网络中的节点。

  入侵者(拥有超过私有网络上50%的物联网节点的计算能力)有可能劫持整个私有区块链。通过散列能力的哈希值能比网络的其他部分速度快,入侵者可以决定哪些新事务将被验证并添加到分布式分类帐中。这通常被称为“51%的攻击”。

  2018年5月,对比特币黄金网络进行了这样的攻击。对物联网传感器网络的51%的攻击可能会导致供应链延迟、制造缺陷、服务中断和甚至威胁人类安全等问题。

  通过标准实现平台可伸缩性

  技术标准,如目前正在由IEEE开发的那些标准,可以为构建可扩展和安全的物联网区块链平台提供一个框架。这样的标准将确保来自不同厂商的物联网区块链设备的互操作性,能够达成降低成本和能源,同时最大限度地提高安全性和效率的这一相同目标。

  应对在制造业供应链中部署物联网区块链网络所带来的能源和安全挑战,将使我们能够更好地量化成本和风险。这将不可避免地为医疗、智能电网、航运和交通等其他领域的未来部署铺平道路。

本文关键词: 区块链 潜能 挑战 物联网 供应链
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